Writing a PloneTestCase unit/integration test
PloneTestCase, which in turn uses ZopeTestCase, is used to set up a full Zope environment, including a Plone instance, for testing. This type of test is very convenient and often necessary because content types, tools and other parts of Plone have hard dependencies on various underlying Zope, CMF and Plone components. It is generally better to write simpler tests, however, both because they provide better isolation (thus testing the component more directly and under better controlled circumstances) and because they execute faster.
PloneTestCase-tests are often referred to as "unit tests", but in truth they are integration tests, since they depend on a "live" Zope instance and thus test the integration between your code and the underlying framework. We can use the PloneTestCase setup to run doctests, as we will see in the next section.
Here, however, we will demonstrate how to use unittest.TestCase classes, where each test is a method on a class (with a name beginning with test) This type of test is not as good for documentation, but can be very useful for systematically executing many variations on the same test. Some developers also find this type of test easier to debug, since it is plain Python code which can be stepped through using the debugger.
In the example.tests package, we have tests/base.py. This does not contain any tests, but performs the necessary configuration to set up the test fixture:
"""Test setup for integration and functional tests. When we import PloneTestCase and then call setupPloneSite(), all of Plone's products are loaded, and a Plone site will be created. This happens at module level, which makes it faster to run each test, but slows down test runner startup. """ from Products.Five import zcml from Products.Five import fiveconfigure from Testing import ZopeTestCase as ztc from Products.PloneTestCase import PloneTestCase as ptc from Products.PloneTestCase.layer import onsetup # # When ZopeTestCase configures Zope, it will *not* auto-load products in # Products/. Instead, we have to use a statement such as: # # ztc.installProduct('SimpleAttachment') # # This does *not* apply to products in eggs and Python packages (i.e. not in # the Products.*) namespace. For that, see below. # # All of Plone's products are already set up by PloneTestCase. # @onsetup def setup_product(): """Set up the package and its dependencies. The @onsetup decorator causes the execution of this body to be deferred until the setup of the Plone site testing layer. We could have created our own layer, but this is the easiest way for Plone integration tests. """ # Load the ZCML configuration for the example.tests package. # This can of course use <include /> to include other packages. fiveconfigure.debug_mode = True import example.tests zcml.load_config('configure.zcml', example.tests) fiveconfigure.debug_mode = False # We need to tell the testing framework that these products # should be available. This can't happen until after we have loaded # the ZCML. Thus, we do it here. Note the use of installPackage() instead # of installProduct(). # # This is *only* necessary for packages outside the Products.* namespace # which are also declared as Zope 2 products, using # <five:registerPackage /> in ZCML. # We may also need to load dependencies, e.g.: # # ztc.installPackage('borg.localrole') # ztc.installPackage('example.tests') # The order here is important: We first call the (deferred) function which # installs the products we need for this product. Then, we let PloneTestCase # set up this product on installation. setup_product() ptc.setupPloneSite(products=['example.tests']) class ExampleTestCase(ptc.PloneTestCase): """We use this base class for all the tests in this package. If necessary, we can put common utility or setup code in here. This applies to unit test cases. """ class ExampleFunctionalTestCase(ptc.FunctionalTestCase): """We use this class for functional integration tests that use doctest syntax. Again, we can put basic common utility or setup code in here. """
Notice how we can explicitly install third party products (and egg-based packages which use product semantics) and then tell PloneTestCase to quick-install these into the test fixture site. The test runner will not automatically load all products in the Products.* namespace, nor will it execute ZCML for packages outside Products.* automatically.
The test class which uses this environment is found in tests/test_integration_unit.py:
"""This is an integration "unit" test. It uses PloneTestCase, but does not use doctest syntax. You will find lots of examples of this type of test in CMFPlone/tests, for example. """ import unittest from example.tests.tests.base import ExampleTestCase from Products.CMFCore.utils import getToolByName class TestSetup(ExampleTestCase): """The name of the class should be meaningful. This may be a class that tests the installation of a particular product. """ def afterSetUp(self): """This method is called before each single test. It can be used to set up common state. Setup that is specific to a particular test should be done in that test method. """ self.workflow = getToolByName(self.portal, 'portal_workflow') def beforeTearDown(self): """This method is called after each single test. It can be used for cleanup, if you need it. Note that the test framework will roll back the Zope transaction at the end of each test, so tests are generally independent of one another. However, if you are modifying external resources (say a database) or globals (such as registering a new adapter in the Component Architecture during a test), you may want to tear things down here. """ def test_portal_title(self): # This is a simple test. The method needs to start with the name # 'test'. # Look at the Python unittest documentation to learn more about hte # kinds of assertion methods which are available. # PloneTestCase has some methods and attributes to help with Plone. # Look at the PloneTestCase documentation, but briefly: # # - self.portal is the portal root # - self.folder is the current user's folder # - self.logout() "logs out" so that the user is Anonymous # - self.setRoles(['Manager', 'Member']) adjusts the roles of the current user self.assertEquals("Plone site", self.portal.getProperty('title')) def test_able_to_add_document(self): new_id = self.folder.invokeFactory('Document', 'my-page') self.assertEquals('my-page', new_id) # Keep adding methods here, or break it into multiple classes or # multiple files as appropriate. Having tests in multiple files makes # it possible to run tests from just one package: # # ./bin/instance test -s example.tests -t test_integration_unit def test_suite(): """This sets up a test suite that actually runs the tests in the class above """ suite = unittest.TestSuite() suite.addTest(unittest.makeSuite(TestSetup)) return suite
Here, we have a test suite with one test class - we could have added more classes if necessary. The afterSetUp() and beforeTearDown() methods - if present - are called immediately before and after each test. After a test is run, the transaction is rolled back, causing tests to run in isolation. You only really need explicit teardown if your tests make permantent changes that are not covered by the ZODB transaction machinery.
You are free to add whatever helper methods you wish to your unit test class, but any method with a name starting with test will be executed as a test. Tests are usually written to be as concise (not to be confused with "obfuscated") as possible.
Notice the calls to methods like self.assertEqual() or self.failUnless(). These are the assertion methods that do the actual testing. If any of these fail, that test is counted as a failure and you'll get an ugly F in your test output.
To run the test, we would do:
./bin/instance test -s example.tests -t test_integration_unit Running: .. Ran 2 tests with 0 failures and 0 errors in 0.178 seconds.
There is actually more output than this, as PloneTestCase installs a number of products and processes ZCML.
Rules of thumb
There are some basic rules of thumb for writing unit tests with PloneTestCase you should be aware of:
- Write test first, don't put it off, and don't be lazy (did we say this enough already?)
- Write one test (i.e. one method) for each thing you want to test
- Keep related tests together (i.e. in the same test case class)
- Be pragmatic. If you want to test every combination of inputs and outputs you will probably go blue in the face, and the additional tests are unlikely to be of much value. Similarly, if a method is complicated, don't just test the basic case. This comes with experience, but in general, you should test common cases, edge cases and preferably cases in which the method or component is expected to fail (i.e. test that it fails as expected - you still shouldn't get any F's in your test output!).
- Keep tests simple. Don't try to be clever, don't over-generalise. When a test fails, you need to easily determine whether it is because the test itself is wrong, or the thing it is testing has a bug.
Assertion and utility methods in the unit testing framework
There are quite a few assertion methods, most of which do basically the same thing - check if something is True or False. Having a variety of names allows you to make your tests read the way you want. The list of assertion methods can be found in the Python documentation for unittest.TestCase. The most common ones are:
- Ensure expr is true
- assertEqual(expr1, expr2)
- Ensure expr1 is equal to expr2
- assertRaises(exception, callable, ...)
- Make sure exception is raised by the callable. Note that callable here should be the name of a method or callable object, not an actual call, so you write e.g. self.assertRaises(AttributeError, myObject.myMethod, someParameter). Note lack of () after myMethod. If you included it, you'd get the exception raised in your test method, which is probably not what you want. Instead, the statement above will cause the unit testing framework to call myMethod(someParameter) (you can pass along any parameters you want after the calalble) and check for an AttributeError.
- Simply fail. This is useful if a test has not yet been completed, or in an if statement inside a test where you know the test has failed.
In addition to the unit testing framework assertion methods, ZopeTestCase and PloneTestCase include some helper methods and variables to help you interact with Zope. It's instructive to read the source code for these two products, but briefly, the key variables you can use in unit tests are:
- The Plone portal the test is executing in
- The member folder of the member you are executing as
And the key methods are:
- Log out, i.e. become anonymous
- Log in again. Pass a username to log in as a different user.
- Pass in a list of roles you want to have. For example, self.setRoles(('Manager',)) lets you be manager for a while. How nice.
- Similarly, grant a number of permissions to the current user in self.folder.
- Set which groups the test user is in.
Tips & Tricks
Good unit testing comes with experience. It's always useful to read the unit tests of code with which you are fairly familiar, to see how other people unit test. We'll cover a few hints here to get you thinking about how you approach your own tests:
- Don't be timid! Python, being a dynamic scripting language, lets you do all kinds of crazy things. You can rip a function right out from the Plone core and replace it with your own implementation in afterSetUp() or a test if that serves your testing purposes.
- Similarly, replacing things like the MailHost with dummy implementations may be the only way to test certain features. Look at CMFPlone/tests/dummy.py for some examples of dummy objects.
- Use tests to try things out. They are a safe environment. If you need to try something a bit out of the ordinary, writing them in a test is often the easiest way of seeing how something works.
- During debugging, you can insert print statements in tests to get traces in your terminal when you execute the tests. Don't check in code with printing tests, though. :)
- Similarly, the python debugger is very valuable inside tests. Putting import pdb; pdb.set_trace() inside your test methods lets you step through testing code and step into the code it calls. If you're not familiar with the python debugger, your life is incomplete. More about using pdb with Plone.